Setting Up Git
OverviewTeaching: 5 min
Exercises: 0 minQuestions
How do I get set up to use Git?Objectives
gitthe first time it is used on a computer.
Understand the meaning of the
When we use Git on a new computer for the first time, we need to configure a few things. Below are a few examples of configurations we will set as we get started with Git:
- our name and email address,
- what our preferred text editor is,
- and that we want to use these settings globally (i.e. for every project).
On a command line, Git commands are written as
git verb options,
verb is what we actually want to do and
options is additional optional information which may be needed for the
verb. So here is how
Alfredo sets up his new laptop:
$ git config --global user.name "Alfredo Linguini" $ git config --global user.email "firstname.lastname@example.org"
Please use your own name and email address instead of Alfredo’s. This user name and email will be associated with your subsequent Git activity, which means that any changes pushed to GitHub, BitBucket, GitLab or another Git host server in a later lesson will include this information.
For these lessons, we will be interacting with GitHub and so the email address used should be the same as the one used when setting up your GitHub account. If you are concerned about privacy, please review GitHub’s instructions for keeping your email address private.
Keeping your email private
If you elect to use a private email address with GitHub, then use that same email address for the
usernamewith your GitHub one.
As with other keys, when you hit Return on your keyboard, your computer encodes this input as a character. Different operating systems use different character(s) to represent the end of a line. (You may also hear these referred to as newlines or line breaks.) Because Git uses these characters to compare files, it may cause unexpected issues when editing a file on different machines. Though it is beyond the scope of this lesson, you can read more about this issue on this GitHub page.
You can change the way Git recognizes and encodes line endings using the
git config. The following settings are recommended:
On macOS and Linux:
$ git config --global core.autocrlf input
And on Windows:
$ git config --global core.autocrlf true
Alfredo also has to set his favorite text editor, following this table:
|BBEdit (Mac, with command line tools)||
|Sublime Text (Mac)||
|Sublime Text (Win, 32-bit install)||
|Sublime Text (Win, 64-bit install)||
|Notepad++ (Win, 32-bit install)||
|Notepad++ (Win, 64-bit install)||
It is possible to reconfigure the text editor for Git whenever you want to change it.
Note that Vim is the default editor for many programs. If you haven’t used Vim before and wish to exit a session without saving your changes, press Esc then type
:q!and hit Return. If you want to save your changes and quit, press Esc then type
:wqand hit Return.
The four commands we just ran above only need to be run once: the flag
--global tells Git
to use the settings for every project, in your user account, on this computer.
You can check your settings at any time:
$ git config --list
You can change your configuration as many times as you want: use the same commands to choose another editor or update your email address.
In some networks you need to use a proxy. If this is the case, you may also need to tell Git about the proxy:
$ git config --global http.proxy proxy-url $ git config --global https.proxy proxy-url
To disable the proxy, use
$ git config --global --unset http.proxy $ git config --global --unset https.proxy
Git Help and Manual
Always remember that if you forget a
gitcommand, you can access the list of commands by using
-hand access the Git manual by using
$ git config -h $ git config --help
While viewing the manual, remember the
:is a prompt waiting for commands and you can press Q to exit the manual.
git configwith the
--globaloption to configure a user name, email address, editor, and other preferences once per machine.